Human Reproduction - IVF - Fertility Abroad – Plastic & Cosmetic Surgery Abroad

About Human Reproduction - IVF - Fertility

In cases of moderate sperm defects and when future mother’s age is
inferior of 40 years old intrauterine insemination is used as it remains
one of the simplest techniques of assisted reproduction. Patient’s natural
cycle may be followed at her country of origin and intrauterine
insemination is scheduled in Greece when ovulation is identified by
echography or hormonal tests. Success rates vary between 12% when one
follicle is present and 17% for more than 2 follicles. In order to produce
more than one follicle patients are advised to use whether a simple pill
called “clomiphen citrate” or low doses of gonadotropins. During this
procedure sperm is collected and processed in order to select the most
“competent” spermatozoa to inseminate.  Insemination takes place right
afterwards with simple painless gynecologic gestures and patient is advised
to lie down for 60 minutes. Patient is allowed to continue her normal life
and return home right after. Complications are extremely rare and multiple
pregnancies are the most representative with a frequency of less than 20%
in our clinic. 
Cost =600 
Duration of stay=2-7 days


Unfortunately all men are not able to produce sperm because of non
obstructive azoospermia. History of crypsorchea, severe and not treated
varricocele, genetic problems may be responsible for complete absence of
spermatogenesis. This is documented by a testicular biopsy and in that case
couple is counseled to use donor’s sperm. Our centre owns a private sperm
bank and cooperates with other Greek and European (especially Danish) sperm
banks. This vast cooperation allows us to select a donor which resembles
best to recipient’s physical characteristics, blood group and serology
status. Donor remains by law anonymous and prior to the insemination an
informed consent is signed by the couple in order to assure baby’s future.
Cost = 900
Duration of stay =2-7 days


Unfortunately our modern way of life is mostly responsible for the
increase of infertility cases. Women are obliged to pursuit their career
and postpone the onset of their reproductive efforts. Environment is
polluted and food chain is influenced by various toxins responsible for the
deterioration of sperm’s quality. Lack of exercise, smoking and alcohol are
contributing factors to increasing rates of infertility among young people
In vitro fertilization techniques are used in those cases where simple
measures are likely to fail like advanced maternal age, severe sperm
defects and endometriosis. Although in most European countries IVF is
prohibited in ages over 43 (sometimes in patients even over 42 years old),
in our centre each case is individually approached and IVF is performed
beyond that limit if good outcome is expected.  During all these years of
hard efforts many patients of over 43 years old (our oldest patient who
became pegnant with her own eggs is 45 years old) have achieved maternity
by using their own oocytes in our centre and are ready to give their
GENESIS ATHENS CLINIC treats about 3.500 cases of IVF/year and success
rates vary between 40-55 %.
There are various medical protocols which can be used for IVF purposes.
Special care is taken to select the most appropriate one for couples in
respect to case’s special characteristics (age, underlying reason of
infertility, time to conception). IVF procedure is divided into 2 periods.
First period takes place at patient’s country of origin and consists of two
phases (suppression and stimulation phase
) while second-one takes place in our centre (Athens) and consists of
oocyte retrieval (pick-up), fertilization and embryon transfer. In the
first phase, also called “suppression phase”, patients undergo a special
treatment for approximately 10 days in order to isolate their own hormonal
system. Once this is achieved, we enter the “stimulation phase” during
which daily injections of gonadotropins are used to stimulate the ovaries
and produce as much as possible follicles. Patient’s cycle is monitored
with echography and blood measurements of estradiol. This procedure usually
takes place in patient’s residence and lasts 12-14 days. Follicles grow
with a rate of 1-2mm/day and oocyte retrieval is performed under sedation
or local anesthesia when the majority of follicles achieve the maturity
status (usually when size >18mm in the average diameter). Sperm is
collected right afterwards and fertilization takes place using either
simple IVF (if sperm parameters are fine) or ICSI (in cases of severe oligo
asthenoteratozoospermia).  Embryo transfer is performed 2 to 6 days after
oocyte retrieval and patients are advised to avoid any physical activity
for 3 to 5 days and resume their normal life right afterwards. Pregnancy
test is performed 12 to 14 days after embryo transfer.  Complications are
rare and include hyper stimulation syndrome (4%), ectopic pregnancy (5%),
hemorrhage (0, 5%), pelvic infection (0.2%) and multiple pregnancies (20%).
Duration of stay: 1 week
Cost: 5000 

Embryon Transfer at the stage of Blastocyst
Great experience is acquired in treating patients with unexplained failure
of IVF in other centers by simply using the technique of blastocysts e.g.
delaying embryon transfer until 5 th and 6 th day post OPU. This procedure
allows us to select the most viable embryons to transfer, perform embryo
transfer in a uterus which does not contract and increase success rates.
Our experience is published in International Congresses and is unanimously
accepted as an alternative tool in cases of repeated IVF failure. In
addition, this technique reduces the rate of extra uterine pregnancy and is
associated with lower multiple pregnancy rate.
Duration of stay: 10 days 
Cost: 5000 euros


Egg Donation program
Unfortunately, time is an unbeatable enemy of human ovaries. Fertility
declines progressively by the age of 35 year old and practically expires
after the age of 44 year old due to inability of the ovaries to produce
eggs of good quality. In some women this phenomenon appears even earlier
because of genetic or environmental factors and in that case the dream of
becoming parent becomes real only by “borrowing” the oocytes of another
woman (volunteers). Special care is taken to select a donor compatible with
recipient’s physical characteristics and assure safety regarding sexually
transmitted diseases and genetic diseases. This is performed by regular
checking of STDs, caryotype examination and testing for cystic fibrosis.
Donor’s cycle is easily synchronized with recipient’s cycle and embryon
transfer is performed in the conventional way.  Donor’s name remains
anonymous as Greek law demands.
Duration of stay: 5-7 days
Cost: 6500

GENESIS ATHENS CLINIC is famous for being the first worldwide to provide
preimplantation genetic diagnosis of embryons at the stage of blastocyst
(The first live-birth after trophectoderm biopsy and preimplantation
genetic testing of human blastocysts for b-Thalassaemia Kokkali et al 2005
Hum Reprod 20:1855-1859)-a technique which is routinely applied nowadays
all over the world and which allows more accurate preimplantation genetic
diagnosis. PGD is offered to couples suffering from a hereditary genetic or
chromosomal disease which they do not want to inherit to their off-springs,
patients with numerous failed IVF attempts or patients with recurrent
miscarriages. PGD can help us to identify HLA compatible brothers or
sisters and “select” the embryo who at birth will give us its valuable stem
cells and save his brothers or sisters who suffer from chronic and severe
diseases (e.g. thalassemia, sickle cell anemia).In our centre there are
already 15 HLA compatible babies born since 2006. 
IVF takes place in the usual conventional way and embryons produced are
biopsied on day 3.  Embryon transfer is performed on the 6 th day under
usual circumstances and success rates overcome 55 %. Recently, due to our
valuable collaborations with Dr Fiorentino in Rome and Prof. Handyside in
Great Britain we are able to perform the advanced technique of caryomapping
and Array CGH which allow us to choose the healthiest babies to transfer.
Duration of stay: 10 days
Cost: 6.500

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